The ancient city of Harar established in 1520 by a local chief sultan Abu Bakar Mohammed and remained a center of religious fevours from the early days of the Islam expansion until 1887 when the authority of the central government was restored by emperor Menelik 2nd. The city is large and populous. The whole setting of medival walls (the gates) were made of stones, the granites and sandstones of the hill and were held together with clay.
Harar for so long a great center of commerce in 1870s attracted the expansionist ambisions of Egypt was than ruled by the Khedive Ismail. Egyptian force advancing inland form the port of Zeila seized the city in October 1875.